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STEREOTAXIS, INC. filed this Form 10-K on 03/15/2019
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The proprietary nature of, and protection for, our products, processes and know-how are important to our business. We seek patent protection in the United States and internationally for our systems and other technology where available and when appropriate.


We have an extensive patent portfolio that we believe protects the fundamental scope of our technology, including our magnet technology, navigational methods, procedures, systems, disposable interventional devices and our 3D integration technology. As of December 31, 2018, we had 74 issued U.S. patents, 1 co-owned U.S. patent and no licensed-in U.S. patents. In addition, we had 8 pending U.S. patent applications and 1 co-owned U.S. patent application. As of December 31, 2018 we had 36 issued foreign patents and 5 owned foreign patent applications. The key patents that protect our Niobe system extend until 2022 and beyond. We also have a number of invention disclosures under consideration and several applications that are being prepared for filing. We cannot be certain that any patents will be issued from any of our pending patent applications, nor can we be certain that any of our existing patents or any patents that may be granted in the future will provide us with protection.


It would be technically difficult and costly to reverse engineer our robotic magnetic system, which contains numerous complex algorithms that control our disposable devices inside the magnetic fields generated by the robotic magnetic system. We further believe that our patent portfolio is broad enough in scope to enable us to obtain legal relief if any entity not licensed by us attempted to market disposable devices in the U.S. that can be navigated by the robotic magnetic system. We can also utilize security keys, such as embedded smart chips or associated software that could allow our system to recognize specific disposable interventional devices in order to prevent unauthorized use of our system.


We have also developed substantial expertise in magnet design, magnet physics and magnetic instrument control that was developed in connection with the development of the robotic magnetic system, which we maintain as trade secrets. This expertise centers around our proprietary magnet design, which is a critical aspect of our ability to design, manufacture and install a cost-effective magnetic navigation system that is small enough to be installed in a standard interventional lab. Our Odyssey Solution contains numerous complex algorithms and proprietary software and hardware configurations, and requires substantial knowledge to design and assemble, which we maintain as trade secrets. This proprietary software and hardware, some of which is owned by Stereotaxis, and some of which is licensed to Stereotaxis, is a material aspect of the ability to design, manufacture and install a cost-effective and efficient information integration, storage, and delivery platform.


In addition, we seek to protect our proprietary information by entering into confidentiality, assignment of invention or license agreements with our employees, consultants, contractors, advisers and other third parties. However, we believe that these measures afford only limited protection.




The markets for medical devices are intensely competitive and are characterized by rapid technological advances, frequent new product introductions, evolving industry standards and price erosion.


In electrophysiology we consider the primary competition to our robotic magnetic system to be traditional catheter-based electrophysiology ablation approaches including RF (radiofrequency) ablation and non-RF therapies. To our knowledge, we are the only company that has commercialized remote, digital and direct control of the working tip of catheters for use in RF ablation procedures. Our success depends in part on convincing hospitals and physicians to convert traditional interventional procedures to procedures using our robotic magnetic system.


We face competition from companies that are developing and marketing new products for use in electrophysiology. These products include next generation mapping systems and RF ablation devices with which our robotic magnetic system is not currently compatible, as well as non-RF ablation devices including single-shot cryoablation devices and other new products for use in other interventional therapies. Some of these products are marketed by companies that may have an established presence in the field of electrophysiology, including major imaging, capital equipment and disposables companies that are currently selling products in the interventional lab. In addition, we face competition from companies that currently market or are developing drugs, gene or cellular therapies to treat the conditions for which our products are intended.


We also face competition from companies that are developing remote interventional techniques. We are aware of three companies that have commercialized endovascular catheter navigation systems which have been cleared by the FDA for mapping and/or ablation procedures. In addition, we are aware of two companies with an electromagnetic catheter navigation system that have received CE Mark approval in Europe. However, each of these companies has limited or no commercial activities.


We face direct competition to certain products in our Odyssey Solution, such as the Odyssey Vision system. These competitors include established imaging companies as well as dedicated solution providers. We expect to continue to face competitive pressure in this market in the future, based on the rapid pace of advancements with this technology.


We believe that the primary competitive factors in the market we address are capability, safety, efficacy, ease of use, price, quality, reliability and effective sales, support, training and service. The length of time required for products to be developed and to receive regulatory and reimbursement approval is also an important competitive factor. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors” for a discussion of other competitive risks facing our business.


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